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Let there be light: Evolution of complex bioluminescent traits may be predictable

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:50pm
A longstanding question among scientists is whether evolution is predictable. A team of researchers from University of California Santa Barbara may have found a preliminary answer. The genetic underpinnings of complex traits in cephalopods may in fact be predictable because they evolved in the same way in two distinct species of squid.
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Novel approach for treating non-cardiac chest pain suggested

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:50pm
Chest pain doesn't necessarily come from the heart. An estimated 200,000 Americans each year experience non-cardiac chest pain. New research suggests a novel approach to treating non-cardiac chest pain due to esophageal hypersensitivity. The treatment involves a drug called dronabinol, a cannabinoid receptor activator that has traditionally been used to treat nausea and vomiting in HIV patients and for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
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Could I squeeze by you? Scientists model molecular movement within narrow channels of mesoporous nanoparticles

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:50pm
Scientists have developed deeper understanding of the ideal design for mesoporous nanoparticles used in catalytic reactions, such as hydrocarbon conversion to biofuels. The research will help determine the optimal diameter of channels within the nanoparticles to maximize catalytic output.
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Cosmic rays threaten future deep-space astronaut missions

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:50pm
Crewed missions to Mars remain an essential goal for NASA, but scientists are only now beginning to understand and characterize the radiation hazards that could make such ventures risky, concludes a new article.
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Impressions shaped by facial appearance foster biased decisions

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:50pm
Research in recent years has shown that people associate specific facial traits with an individual's personality. People consistently associate trustworthiness, competence, dominance, and friendliness with specific facial traits. According to a new article, people rely on these subtle facial traits to make important decisions, from voting for a political candidate to convicting a suspect for a crime. The authors present its real-world consequences and discuss potential ways of overcoming it.
Categories: A Broader View

Preservation technique for marginal livers prevents biliary stricture

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:49pm
A preservation technique known as sequential subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (SNEVLP) prevents ischemic type biliary stricture following liver transplantation using grafts from donations after cardiac death (DCD). These findings indicate that the preservation of DCD grafts using SNEVLP versus cold storage reduces bile duct and endothelial cell injury post transplantation.
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Treatment for osteoporosis, bone cancer, employed for the first time in dental filling procedures

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:49pm
Researchers have demonstrated how the use of zoledronic acid, in combination with bioactive ion-releasing resin-based restorative materials used as dental adhesive, reduces the degradation of dentin collagen and promotes remineralisation at the resin-dentine interface.
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Significant rise in e-cigarette use among youth in Poland

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:48pm
Use of electronic cigarettes among students in Poland has increased dramatically, rising more than threefold in just the last three years, research finds. Electronic cigarettes are battery-operated products that heat a liquid solution that vaporizes nicotine and other additives, which are then inhaled by the user.
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Research highlights extent, effects of school violence in U.S.

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:48pm
Six percent of U.S. children and youth missed a day of school over the course of a year because they were the victim of violence or abuse at school. "This study really highlights the way school violence can interfere with learning," says the lead author. "Too many kids are missing school because they do not feel safe."
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Resetting the circadian clock: Shift workers might want to skip high-iron foods at night

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:48pm
Workers punching in for the graveyard shift may be better off not eating high-iron foods at night so they don’t disrupt the circadian clock in their livers. "Iron is like the dial that sets the timing of the clock," the lead researcher says. "Discovering a factor, such as iron, that sets the circadian rhythm of the liver may have broad implications for people who do shift work."
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Super stable garnet ceramics may be ideal for high-energy lithium batteries

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:01pm
Scientists have discovered exceptional properties in a garnet material that could enable development of higher-energy battery designs.
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Less-numerate investors swayed by corporate report presentation effects

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 12:01pm
Less-numerate investors are more susceptible to style and presentation effects in corporate social responsibility reports, according to new research.
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Predicting the predator threatening a squirrel by analyzing its sounds and tail movements

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 11:59am
Biologists found the could quite accurately predict what type of predator was threatening a squirrel by analyzing its sounds and tail movements.
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Two vessels from WWII convoy battle off North Carolina discovered: German U-boat 576 and freighter Bluefields found within 240 yards

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 11:59am
Scientists have discovered two significant vessels from World War II's Battle of the Atlantic. The German U-boat 576 and the freighter Bluefields were found approximately 30 miles off the coast of North Carolina. Lost for more than 70 years, the discovery of the two vessels, in an area known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic, is a rare window into a historic military battle and the underwater battlefield landscape of WWII.
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Survey shows what Americans fear most

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 11:59am
The Chapman Survey on American Fears included 1,500 participants from across the nation and all walks of life. The research team leading this effort pared the information down into four basic categories: personal fears, crime, natural disasters and fear factors.
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Ancient Europeans intolerant to lactose for 5,000 years after they adopted agriculture

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 11:59am
By analyzing DNA from petrous bones of ancient Europeans, scientists have identified these peoples remained intolerant to lactose (natural sugar in the milk of mammals) for 5,000 years after they adopted agricultural practices. The scientific team examined nuclear ancient DNA extracted from thirteen individuals from burials from archaeological sites in the Great Hungarian Plain. The skeletons sampled date from 5,700 BC (Early Neolithic) to 800 BC (Iron Age).
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Fight against Alzheimer's disease: New research on walnuts

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 11:57am
An new animal study reveals potential brain-health benefits of a walnut-enriched diet. Researchers suggest that a diet including walnuts may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk, delaying the onset, slowing the progression of, or preventing Alzheimer’s disease.
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Animal therapy reduces anxiety, loneliness symptoms in college students

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 11:56am
Animal-assisted therapy can reduce symptoms of anxiety and loneliness among college students, according to researchers who provided animal-assisted therapy to 55 students in a group setting at a small arts college. They found a 60 percent decrease in self-reported anxiety and loneliness symptoms following animal-assisted therapy, in which a registered therapy dog was under the supervision of a licensed mental health practitioner.
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Screening questions fail to identify teens at risk for hearing loss

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 11:56am
Subjective screening questions do not reliably identify teenagers who are at risk for hearing loss, according to researchers. Their study results suggest that objective hearing tests should be refined for this age group to replace screening questions.
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Seven ways to feel full without overeating

Science News Daily - October 21, 2014 - 11:56am
Not feeling full after or between meals can result in overeating. Eating certain nutrients and foods may help curb appetite and keep one feeling fuller longer, according to an expert.
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