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Three-quarters of depressed cancer patients do not receive treatment for depression; new approach could transform care

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 7:36pm
Three papers reveal that around three-quarters of cancer patients who have major depression are not currently receiving treatment for depression, and that a new integrated treatment program is strikingly more effective at reducing depression and improving quality of life than current care.
Categories: A Broader View

Inside the Teenage Brain: New Studies Explain Risky Behavior

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 7:35pm
It’s common knowledge that teenage boys seem predisposed to risky behaviors. Now, a series of new studies is shedding light on specific brain mechanisms that help to explain what might be going on inside juvenile male brains.
Categories: A Broader View

Why some liquids are 'fragile' and others are 'strong'

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 3:34pm
Only recently has it become possible to accurately 'see' the structure of a liquid. Using X-rays and a high-tech apparatus that holds liquids without a container, a physicist has compared the behavior of glass-forming liquids as they approach the glass transition. The results are the strongest demonstration yet that bulk properties like viscosity are linked to microscopic ones like structure.
Categories: A Broader View

Social class makes a difference in how children tackle classroom problems

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 3:34pm
Social class can account for differences in how parents coach their children to manage classroom challenges, a study shows. Such differences can affect a child's education by reproducing inequalities in the classroom. With the widening gaps in educational outcomes between social classes, the researcher suggested that this study could help schools become more aware of these differences and make moves to reduce the inequalities.
Categories: A Broader View

Nanodiamonds are forever: Did comet collision leave layer of nanodiamonds across Earth?

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 3:34pm
A comet collision with Earth caused abrupt environmental stress and degradation that contributed to the extinction of most large animal species then inhabiting the Americas, a group of scientists suggests. The catastrophic impact and the subsequent climate change also led to the disappearance of the prehistoric Clovis culture, and to human population decline. Now focus has turned to the character and distribution of nanodiamonds, one type of material produced during such an extraterrestrial collision. The researchers found an abundance of these tiny diamonds distributed over 50 million square kilometers across the Northern Hemisphere.
Categories: A Broader View

Novel 'butterfly' molecule could build new sensors, photoenergy conversion devices

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 3:33pm
Exciting new work has led to a novel molecular system that can take your temperature, emit white light, and convert photon energy directly to mechanical motions. And, the molecule looks like a butterfly.
Categories: A Broader View

A touching story: Ancient conversation between plants, fungi and bacteria

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 3:33pm
The mechanical force that a single fungal cell or bacterial colony exerts on a plant cell may seem vanishingly small, but it plays a heavy role in setting up some of the most fundamental symbiotic relationships in biology, according to a new study. It's known that disease-causing fungi build a structure to break through the plant cell wall, "but there is growing evidence that fungi and also bacteria in symbiotic associations use a mechanical stimulation to indicate their presence," says one researcher. "They are knocking on the door, but not breaking it down."
Categories: A Broader View

Water 'thermostat' could help engineer drought-resistant crops

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 2:17pm
A gene that could help engineer drought-resistant crops has been identified by researchers. The gene, called OSCA1, encodes a protein in the cell membrane of plants that senses changes in water availability and adjusts the plant's water conservation machinery accordingly. The findings could make it easier to feed the world's growing population in the face of climate change.
Categories: A Broader View

First study of brain activation in MS using fNIRS

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 2:17pm
Using functional near infrared spectroscopy, researchers showed differential brain activation patterns between people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls. This is first MS study to examine brain activation using fNIRS during a cognitive task.
Categories: A Broader View

Encyclopedia of how genomes function gets much bigger

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 2:17pm
A big step in understanding the mysteries of the human genome has been unveiled in the form of three analyses that provide the most detailed comparison yet of how the genomes of the fruit fly, roundworm, and human function. The analyses will likely offer insights into how the information in the human genome regulates development, and how it is responsible for diseases.
Categories: A Broader View

Tracking spending among commercially insured

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 2:17pm
Recent growth in health care spending for commercially insured individuals is due primarily to increases in prices for medical services, rather than increased use, according to a new study. Increases in health care spending for commercially insured beneficiaries were principally the result of increases in prices (how much medical services cost) -- especially for outpatient services -- rather than increases in utilization (how much medical care is received), researchers conclude.
Categories: A Broader View

Junk food makes rats lose appetite for balanced diet

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 2:17pm
A diet of junk food not only makes rats fat, but also reduces their appetite for novel foods, a preference that normally drives them to seek a balanced diet, reports a study. "The interesting thing about this finding is that if the same thing happens in humans, eating junk food may change our responses to signals associated with food rewards," says an author. "It's like you've just had ice cream for lunch, yet you still go and eat more when you hear the ice cream van come by."
Categories: A Broader View

Cheetah menu: Wildlife instead of cattle

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 2:17pm
Cheetahs primarily prefer wildlife on their menu to cattle, scientists have confirmed. The cheetah is a vulnerable species that only exists on Namibia’s commercial farmland in large populations. Here, local farmers see cheetahs as a potential threat for their cattle.
Categories: A Broader View

Gang life brings deep health risks for girls

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 2:16pm
Being involved in a gang poses considerable health-related risks for adolescent African American girls, including more casual sex partners and substance abuse combined with less testing for HIV and less knowledge about preventing sexually transmitted diseases, according to a new study.
Categories: A Broader View

Rubber meets the road with new carbon, battery technologies

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 2:16pm
Recycled tires could see new life in lithium-ion batteries that provide power to plug-in electric vehicles and store energy produced by wind and solar, say researchers. By modifying the microstructural characteristics of carbon black, a substance recovered from discarded tires, a team is developing a better anode for lithium-ion batteries.
Categories: A Broader View

Stop and listen: Study shows how movement affects hearing

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 1:17pm
When we want to listen carefully to someone, the first thing we do is stop talking. The second thing we do is stop moving altogether. The interplay between movement and hearing has a counterpart deep in the brain. A new study used optogenetics to reveal exactly how the motor cortex, which controls movement, can tweak the volume control in the auditory cortex, which interprets sound.
Categories: A Broader View

Malaria symptoms fade on repeat infections due to loss of immune cells

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 1:16pm
Children who repeatedly become infected with malaria often experience no clinical symptoms with these subsequent infections, and a team of scientists has discovered that this might be due at least in part to a depletion of specific types of immune cells. Additionally, researchers speculate that malaria infection, by reshaping immune responses, might influence susceptibility to, and protection from, other infectious diseases.
Categories: A Broader View

Self-deceived individuals deceive others better

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 1:16pm
Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and reach influential positions in banks and other organizations. And these people are more likely to overestimate other people's abilities and take greater risks, possibly creating problems for their organizations.
Categories: A Broader View

Orphaned children can do just as well in institutions, study concludes

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 1:16pm
The removal of institutions or group homes will not lead to better child well-being and could even worsen outcomes for some orphaned and separated children, according to new findings from a three-year study across five low- and middle-income countries. Children in institutions are as healthy and, in some ways, healthier than those in family-based care, according to the study.
Categories: A Broader View

Stone-tipped spears lethal, may indicate early cognitive and social skills

Science News Daily - August 27, 2014 - 1:16pm
Attaching a stone tip on to a wooden spear shaft was a significant innovation for early modern humans living around 500,000 years ago. However, it was also a costly behavior in terms of time and effort to collect, prepare and assemble the spear. Researchers conducted controlled experiments to learn if there was a 'wounding' advantage between using a wooden spear or a stone-tipped spear.
Categories: A Broader View