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New brain pathways for understanding type 2 diabetes and obesity uncovered

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 3:35pm
Researchers have identified neural pathways that increase understanding of how the brain regulates body weight, energy expenditure, and blood glucose levels – a discovery that can lead to new therapies for treating Type 2 diabetes and obesity.
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Scalping can raise ticket prices

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 1:46pm
A new study finds that resale markets like Craigslist can add value to tickets sold by concert venues and Ticketmaster.
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New EMS system dramatically improves survival from cardiac arrest

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 1:46pm
A new emergency medicine system that sent patients to designated cardiac receiving centers dramatically increased the survival rate of victims of sudden cardiac arrest in Arizona, according to a study. Under the study, 31 hospitals, serving about 80 percent of the state's population, were designated as cardiac receiving centers between December 2007 and November 2010. Approximately 55 emergency medicine service agencies also participated in the study.
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Designer potatoes on the menu to boost consumption

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 1:45pm
A decline in overall potato consumption has breeders working on “designer” spuds that meet the time constraints and unique tastes of a younger generation.
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Slow walking speed, memory complaints can predict dementia

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 1:44pm
A study involving nearly 27,000 older adults on five continents found that nearly 1 in 10 met criteria for pre-dementia based on a simple test that measures how fast people walk and whether they have cognitive complaints. People who tested positive for pre-dementia were twice as likely as others to develop dementia within 12 years.
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Anti-inflammatory drug can prevent neuron loss in Parkinson's model

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 12:16pm
An experimental anti-inflammatory drug can protect vulnerable neurons and reduce motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, a study has shown. The findings demonstrate that the drug, called XPro1595, can reach the brain at sufficient levels and have beneficial effects when administered by subcutaneous injection, like an insulin shot. Previous studies of XPro1595 in animals tested more invasive modes of delivery, such as direct injection into the brain.
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Manipulating key protein in brain holds potential against obesity, diabetes

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 12:16pm
A protein that controls when genes are switched on or off plays a key role in specific areas of the brain to regulate metabolism, researchers have found. The research potentially could lead to new therapies to treat obesity and diabetes, since the transcription factor involved – spliced X-box binding protein 1 – appears to influence the body's sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling.
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Experiences at every stage of life contribute to cognitive abilities in old age

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 10:09am
Early life experiences, such as childhood socioeconomic status and literacy, may have greater influence on the risk of cognitive impairment late in life than such demographic characteristics as race and ethnicity, a large study has found. "These findings are important," explained the lead author of the study "because it challenges earlier research that suggests associations between race and ethnicity, particularly among Latinos, and an increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment and dementia.
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Collecting just the right data: Algorithm helps identify which data to target

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 10:08am
Much artificial-intelligence research addresses the problem of making predictions based on large data sets. An obvious example is the recommendation engines at retail sites like Amazon and Netflix. But some types of data are harder to collect -- information about geological formations thousands of feet underground, for instance. And in other applications -- such as trying to predict the path of a storm -- there may just not be enough time to crunch all the available data. When you can't collect all the data you need, a new algorithm tells you which to target.
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Intensity of hurricanes: New study helps improve predictions of storm intensity

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 10:08am
While predicting the path of hurricanes has gotten better, little has been done to improve predicting a storm's intensity. That is, until now. "The air-water interface -- whether it had significant waves or significant spray -- is a big factor in storm intensity," said one expert involved in a new study. "Hurricanes gain heat energy through the interface and they lose mechanical energy at the interface."
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Test increases odds of correct surgery for thyroid cancer patients

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 10:08am
The routine use of a molecular testing panel increases the likelihood of performing the correct initial surgery for thyroid cancer patients by 30 percent, researchers report. "Before this test, about one in five potential thyroid cancer cases couldn't be diagnosed without an operation to remove a portion of the thyroid," said the lead author.
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Magnets for fusion energy: High-temperature superconductor achieves new world record for electrical current

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 10:07am
Scientists have achieved an electrical current of 100,000 amperes, which is by far the highest in the world, by using the new idea of assembling the state-of-the-art yttrium-based high-temperature superconducting tapes to fabricate a large-scale magnet conductor.
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Why do men prefer nice women? Responsiveness and desire

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 10:07am
Does responsiveness increase sexual desire in the other person? Do men perceive responsive women as more attractive, and does the same hold true for women's perceptions of men? A recent study undertook to answer those questions.
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New system to detect mercury in water systems

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 10:07am
A new ultra-sensitive, low-cost and portable system for detecting mercury in environmental water has been developed by researchers. "The promising sensing performance of this system along with its cost-competiveness and portability make it an excellent potential alternative to current analytical techniques," says the project's leader. "This technique could provide the basis for future point-of-analysis systems for monitoring water quality on site and may help implement better monitoring processes around the world."
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Nanoparticle 'alarm clock' tested to awaken immune systems put to sleep by cancer

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 10:07am
Researchers are exploring ways to wake up the immune system so it recognizes and attacks invading cancer cells. One pioneering approach uses nanoparticles to jumpstart the body’s ability to fight tumors. Nanoparticles are too small to imagine. One billion could fit on the head of a pin. This makes them stealthy enough to penetrate cancer cells with therapeutic agents such as antibodies, drugs, vaccine type viruses, or even metallic particles.
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Monitoring rise and fall of the microbiome

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 7:04am
Close analysis of bacteria in the human digestive tract reveals links to diet and other lifestyle factors, researchers report. Trillions of bacteria live in each person's digestive tract. Scientists believe that some of these bacteria help digest food and stave off harmful infections, but their role in human health is not well understood.
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Total darkness at night key to success of breast cancer therapy, study shows

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 7:04am
Exposure to light at night, which shuts off nighttime production of the hormone melatonin, renders breast cancer completely resistant to tamoxifen, a widely used breast cancer drug, says a new study. Melatonin by itself delayed the formation of tumors and significantly slowed their growth, researchers report, but tamoxifen caused a dramatic regression of tumors in animals with either high nighttime levels of melatonin during complete darkness or those receiving melatonin supplementation during dim light at night exposure.
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Informed consent: False positives not a worry in lung cancer study

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 7:04am
A false positive screen result -- a screening test in which initial findings of concern for cancer are later found not to be worrisome -- did not cause participants undue anxiety or reduced quality of life, a new study shows. Researchers hypothesize that clear and accurate consent forms prepared patients for these false positive diagnoses.
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Less than 1% of UK public research funding spent on antibiotic research in past 5 years

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 7:03am
Less than 1% of research funding awarded by public and charitable bodies to UK researchers in 2008–13 was awarded for research on antibiotics, according to new research. The study, which is the first detailed assessment of public and charitable funding to UK researchers focusing on bacteriology and antibiotic research, suggests that present levels of funding for antibiotic research in the UK are inadequate, and will need to be urgently increased if the growing crisis of antibiotic resistance is to be tackled effectively by UK researchers.
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Could heart attack patients could be treated more quickly?

Science News Daily - July 25, 2014 - 7:03am
Clinical judgement, combined with an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood test on arrival, is effective in reducing unnecessary hospital admissions for chest pain, a new study shows. The findings of a research group could potentially make a huge difference to a large number of patients. Researchers assessed the diagnostic accuracy of emergency doctors’ clinical judgement for acute coronary syndromes – both alone and in combination with the tests available on arrival – ECG and a blood test which detects a protein called troponin.
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